### Reliability-based alarm thresholds for structures analysed with the finite element method

Civil engineering structures are commonly monitored to assess their structural behaviour, using alarm thresholds to indicate when contingency actions are needed to improve safety. However, there is a need for guidelines on how to establish thresholds that ensure sufficient safety. This paper therefore proposes a general computational algorithm for establishment of reliability-based alarm thresholds for civil engineering structures. The algorithm is based on Subset simulation with independent-component Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation and applicable with both analytical structural models and finite element models. The reliability-based alarm thresholds can straightforwardly be used in the monitoring plans that are developed in the design phase of a construction project, in particular for sequentially loaded structures such as staged construction of embankments. With the reliability-based alarm thresholds, contingency actions will only be implemented when they are needed to satisfy the target probability of failure.