Protective concrete structures
Shear in concrete structures subjected to dynamic loads
Shear failures in reinforced concrete structures under intense dynamic loads are brittle and limit the structure's energy-absorbing capabilities. This paper comprises a review of the literature dealing with the problem of dynamic shear of reinforced concrete elements, with a focus on parameters that control flexural shear and direct shear. In this context, dynamic loads refer to intense events due to explosions and impacts. For this reason, the initial response is also highlighted. Experimental investigations and calculations show that shear force and bending moment distributions in dynamic events are initially significantly different from the distributions under slowly applied loads. Therefore, structural wave propagation, geometrical properties of elements, strain rate effects and dynamic load characteristics need to be considered when analysing shear. The review also indicates that arch action in the shear span soon after the load has been applied has a large influence on the shear capacity of an element. This action is of particular importance in intense loading events. Finally, suggestions for further research are identified.
Air-blast-loaded, high-strength concrete beams. Part I: Experimental investigation
The structural behaviour of concrete beams subjected to air blast loading was investigated. Beams of both high-strength concrete (HSC) and normal-strength concrete (NSC) were subjected to air blasts from explosives in a shock tube and for reference were also loaded statically. Concrete with nominal compressive strengths of 40, 100, 140, 150 and 200 MPa were used and a few beams also contained steel fibres. Furthermore, beams with two concrete layers of different strength were tested. All beams subjected to static loading failed in flexure. For some beam types, the failure mode in the dynamic tests differed from the failure mode in the corresponding static tests. In these cases, the failure mode changed from a ductile flexural failure in the static tests to a brittle shear failure in the dynamic tests. Beams without fibres and with high ratio of reinforcement exhibited shear failures in the dynamic tests. It was observed that the inclusion of steel fibres increased the shear strength and the ductility of the beams. The investigation indicates that beams subjected to air blast loading obtain an increased load capacity when compared with the corresponding beams subjected to static loading.
Dynamic testing of steel for a new type of energy absorbing rock bolt
Rock bolts of steel are the most frequently used components in systems for rock reinforcement. Special types are used as energy absorbing elements in systems exposed to dynamic loads and these must yield plastically under high loading velocities. A new type of energy absorbing rock bolt of soft steel has been suggested and tested. To investigate the strain rate effects on the yield stress and ultimate strength of the steel were bars dynamically loaded in a high speed testing machine. The observed tensile forces can be divided into one part from impact and another from quasi-static straining. The tests showed that there was a considerable strain rate effect on the yield stress of the steel. It is recommended that higher dynamic yield stresses are utilized in the dynamic design which has to incorporate the risk of high peak forces from impact loading.
Contact: Anders Ansell (profile pages)